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Adverse Childhood Experiences prevention

For many families, potentially traumatic events can affect a child's health and behavior. Events like these are referred to as ACEs―Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)―and they are more common than you may think. Fortunately, we also know that safe, stable, nurturing relationships with caring adults can buffer children from some of this harm and prevent ACEs from happening in the first place.

Positive childhood experiences can create the safe, stable and nurturing environment children and adolescents need to thrive. This doesn’t have to be done by just a parent or caregiver, other adults can provide these experiences as well which is why we are encouraging parents and caregivers to #findyour3 for their children and adolescents: 3 people or 3 community resources that can provide support to children and adolescents. Use the graphics and resources below to share information on social media and in other networks to prevent ACEs by helping parents create positive childhood experiences.

Preventing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can thwart some of the leading causes of death in adults, according to a study published Tuesday in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDCs) Vital Signs. These include heart disease, cancer, respiratory diseases, diabetes and suicide.

Such efforts are critical to addressing multiple public health and social challenges and to improving the lives of children, families and communities, the study noted.

CDC officials urged health care providers, states, communities and employers to help reduce ACEs, which also are associated with leading causes of poor socioeconomic outcomes in adulthood.

“It will take all of us working together to change environments and behaviors to stop ACEs from happening in the first place, and to lessen the harms for those who have experienced ACEs. There is a role for everyone: parents, families, neighborhoods, spiritual communities, business and government,” CDC Principal Deputy Director Anne Schuchat, M.D., said in a news briefing Tuesday.

According to the report:

  • Females and several racial/ethnic minorities were at greater risk for having had four or more ACEs.
  • Preventing ACEs could reduce the number of patients with coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the U.S., by up to 13%, a reduction of about 1.1 million cases for the 25 states analyzed in the study.
  • Preventing ACEs could cut the number of adults who have depression by nearly 44%.

Data were collected from 144,017 respondents in 25 states who answered questions about ACEs in 2015-’17. Researchers looked at self-reported status for heart disease, stroke, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, kidney disease, diabetes, depression, overweight/obesity, current smoking, heavy drinking, less than high school completion, unemployment and lack of health insurance.

Overall, 61% of adults noted at least one type of ACE, and 16% experienced four or more types. Those with the most ACEs had higher odds of having chronic health conditions for overweight or obesity than those reporting no exposure. In addition, the odds of depression, being a current smoker and socioeconomic challenges — including current unemployment — all were higher among adults with the most ACEs.

ACEs have been linked to increased risk for alcohol and substance use disorders, suicide, mental health conditions, heart disease, other chronic illnesses and health risk behaviors throughout life.

“The bottom line is this: Adverse childhood experiences produce toxic stress that can impact people all their lives. But ACEs are potentially preventable by creating safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments for all children, families and communities,” Dr. Schuchat said.

Prevention strategies also are linked with higher academic achievement and reductions in suicidal behavior, arrest and incarceration rates and substance use in adolescence and adulthood.

Strategies to help reduce ACEs in families include promoting safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments for children and families; emphasis on early prevention; and strengthening economic supports for families, such as earned income tax credits and family-friendly work policies. Other strategies involve ensuring a strong start for children such as through early childhood home visitation, high quality child care, preschool programs, and enhanced primary care services for screening, referral and support.

“Clinicians are busy and may or may not incorporate ACEs into their practice,” Dr. Schuchat said. “But we think it’s very important that they do — both pediatricians in terms of evaluating the children — and screening the parents as well, because we know that this is one of those issues that can (cross) generations…So we hope that clinicians will take the time to screen and refer. We also think that incorporating principles of trauma-informed care in that clinical encounter can be very helpful at the time of the event and then going forward.”

How can we prevent adverse childhood experiences?

ACEs are preventable. Creating and sustaining safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments for all children and families can prevent ACEs and help all children reach their full potential. CDC has produced a resource, Preventing Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs): Leveraging the Best Available Evidence, to help states and communities take advantage of the best available evidence to prevent ACEs. It features six strategies from the CDC Technical Packages to Prevent Violence.

Preventing ACEs

Strategy

Approach

 

Strengthen economic supports to families

  • Strengthening household financial security
  • Family-friendly work policies
 

Promote social norms that protect against violence and adversity

  • Public education campaigns
  • Legislative approaches to reduce corporal punishment
  • Bystander approaches
  • Men and boys as allies in prevention
 

Ensure a strong start for children

  • Early childhood home visitation
  • High-quality child care
  • Preschool enrichment with family engagement
 

Teach skills

  • Social-emotional learning
  • Safe dating and healthy relationship skill programs
  • Parenting skills and family relationship approaches
 

Connect youth to caring adults and activities

  • Mentoring programs
  • After-school programs
 

Intervene to lessen immediate and long-term harms

  • Enhanced primary care
  • Victim-centered services
  • Treatment to lessen the harms of ACEs
  • Treatment to prevent problem behavior and future involvement in violence
  • Family-centered treatment for substance use disorders
 

Raising awareness of ACEs can help:

  • Change how people think about the causes of ACEs and who could help prevent them.
  • Shift the focus from individual responsibility to community solutions.
  • Reduce stigma around seeking help with parenting challenges or for substance misuse, depression, or suicidal thoughts.
  • Promote safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments where children live, learn, and play.

Let’s help all children reach their full potential and create neighborhoods, communities, and a world in which every child can thrive.

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