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How to do Appendices in Research Papers

An appendix for research paper may come in many different forms and may seem complex. It is important to know how to incorporate appendices correctly into your research paper. Read on to find out how.

What are appendices?

Appendices form a section of a research document that comprises of materials and references that are too extensive or large to fit in the main report. The appendix's information should be summarised and then referred to from the main body of the research paper. Appendices are not included in the paper’s word count.

What do I need to include in an appendix?

An appendix contains information that is not required to be included in the body of the paper but may be useful in providing a deeper knowledge of the study subject. It also contains information that is too lengthy to be included in the body of the document.

What kinds of things can you put in an appendix?

You can add the following items to an appendix:

  • calculations, statistics, raw data
  • technical drawings or technical specifics e.g., computer coding
  • PowerPoints
  • paragraphs or texts
  • charts or graphs
  • images, pictures, and illustrations
  • maps, diagrams, and drawings
  • website addresses
  • reading recommendations
  • extra details about a novel or unique approach, or design procedures
  • correspondence
  • demographic details about participants or groups
  • examples of participant responses
  • extended or detailed descriptions
  • lists that are too lengthy to include in the main text
  • lists of supporting research and articles that are not directly referenced in-text

Note that the appendix should only contain information that will be linked as references in the main body of your paper. The appendix should not contain any information that is not relevant to or supports the ideas made in the primary writing.

Why are appendices important?

An appendix allows people to bypass information they do not want to read. An appendix offers additional information which may not be valuable to the entire audience, or you may not be able to include it in the main body due to time or space constraints. Appendices back up the main points in your paper, but not everyone will be interested in reading them.

General rules of appendix for research paper

When including an appendix (singular) or appendices (plural), keep in mind that the information is non-essential, so without it, the reader would still be able to understand the significance, validity, and ramifications of your research.

Every appendix document must have a label followed by a letter or number. These same labels must be published on the research paper's contents page, and each appendix must be referenced with their number or letter at the appropriate position in the research paper's text.

Appendices also require a descriptive title which may be centred or aligned left (dependent on the required citation style). The label informs the reader what the appendix is e.g., ‘Scanned Copy of Participant One’s Questionnaire Responses’ or ‘Line Graph to Show Rainfall during June 2021 in Shanghai’.

How to make appendices in research paper

Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to do appendices!

  1. Collect:
    • Gather raw data e.g., calculations
    • Add images, charts, graphs
    • Note the instruments used e.g., cameras, cell phone recordings
    • Add any other additional but relevant information e.g., emails, transcripts
  2. Organise:
    • Arrange the appendices in the same order as they are mentioned in the research paper or dissertation. This makes the appendix easier for readers to navigate. For example, if you mention an Excel spreadsheet first in your research paper, then this will be your first appendices.
    • Add labels to each appendix in order. Use uppercase letters or sentence case letters at the top of the page and the same style and size font as the main headings used in the body of the research paper for each chapter e.g., ‘Appendix 1’, or ‘APPENDIX A’ (usually in 12pt, Times New Roman).
    • If you only have one item to put in the appendix, just title it ‘Appendix’, no letters or numbers are needed.
  3. Format:
    • Give the appendix a descriptive title on the next line down (aligned left or centred, depending on your college’s required style) e.g., ‘Bar Graph to show the relationship between type 2 diabetes and sugar consumption in Dubai’
    • Place all appendices either immediately before or after the reference list/works cited list/bibliography (dependent on your colleges required style)
    • To avoid confusing the reader, each appendix should begin on a different page (no matter how many pages they cover)
    • Add page numbers (usually in the top right-hand corner of the page).
  4. Proofread:
    • Check the order is correct
    • Check the labels and descriptive titles are in place, and in the same size and style font as the main headings in the rest of the research paper.
    • Correct any spelling, punctuation, or grammatical errors.
  5. Contents page: Add your appendices labels and titles to the table of contents with the corresponding page number

How to write an appendix in different styles

Appendices in a report can vary. Check with your educational instructor if you are unsure as to your educational establishment’s required style of writing but you can find below a basic guide to some common styles.

APA Appendix Guidelines

MLA Appendix Guidelines

Chicago Appendix Guidelines

Harvard Appendix Guidelines

Appendix Placement

After the reference list or bibliography

Each appendix starts on a new page

Before the work’s cited page

Each appendix starts on a new page

After the reference list or bibliography

Each appendix starts on a new page

After the reference list or bibliography

Each appendix starts on a new page

Appendix Label And Descriptive Title

The label ‘Appendix’ should appear first, followed by ABC, etc and above the appendix label

12pt, Times New Roman

Centred and bold

The label ‘Appendix’ should appear first, followed by ABC, etc and above the appendix label

12pt, Times New Roman

Centred and capitalized

The label ‘Appendix’ should appear first, followed by 1,2,3, etc and above the appendix label

12pt, Times New Roman

The label ‘Appendix’ should appear first, followed by ABC, or 1,2,3, etc and above the appendix label

12pt, Times New Roman

Centred

Appendix Page Numbers

Each appendix should have a page number in the top right-hand corner

Each appendix should have a page number in the top right-hand corner

Each appendix should have a page number in the top right-hand corner

Each appendix should have a page number in the top right-hand corne

How to refer to your appendices

If you have an appendix in a research paper, you must refer to it within the research paper. After the sentence in which you reference your appendix in the paper, format the in-text citation as follows: (See Appendix A as an illustration of the increase in sales) or (see Appendix 3 for the full transcript). The letter or number should correspond to the appendix label. For instance,

Overall, the qualitative findings indicated a strong preference for reduced teacher turnover and improved accountability (see Appendix 4).

To summarize, you should by now better understand how to write an appendix and realize thatappendices allow you to include additional content to support your research paper. The format can differ depending on your college's required style but there are many similarities.

The key points to remember is that appendices:

  1. must appear in order
  2. include a title and a label
  3. must each start on a separate page
  4. appear on the contents page
  5. be referred to within the research paper
  6. include page numbers

Still need help?

If you are still unsure as to how to incorporate appendices in a report, writeanappendix document, or format an appendix, you can contact research paper editors for help. Type ‘write my research paper for me’ into a search engine.

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